Cara install Joomla di Ubuntu 20.04

Tutorial install Joomla di Ubuntu 20.04 dengan Nginx, MySQL/MariaDB, PHP (LEMP stack) serta SSL Let’s Ecnrypt.

Sebelum ke tutorial inti sebaiknya, update system Linux dan install unzip

apt update -y
apt install unzip -y

Buat direktori untuk penyimpanan web Joomla

mkdir -p /var/www/html/joomla

Penting: Hubungkan domain ke server agar nanti saat request SSL gratis Letsencrypt berhasil.

Langkah 1 – Install Nginx

Install Nginx stable version

apt install nginx -y

Jalankan service Nginx

systemctl start nginx

Aktifkan Nginx saat booting

systemctl enable nginx

Langkah 2 – Install MariaDB

Install MariaDB 10.5,  ini perintah untuk menambah repositorynya

apt-get install software-properties-common
apt-key adv --fetch-keys 'https://mariadb.org/mariadb_release_signing_key.asc'
add-apt-repository 'deb [arch=amd64,arm64,ppc64el] http://sgp1.mirrors.digitalocean.com/mariadb/repo/10.5/ubuntu focal main'

Perintah untuk update, start, mengaktifkan mariadb.service saat reboot dan atur password root

apt update -y
systemctl start mariadb-server
systemctl enable mariadb
mysql_secure_installation

Silahkan disesuaikan

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB
SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and
haven't set the root password yet, you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none): Enter aja
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password or using the unix_socket ensures that nobody
can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation.

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n] Y
Enabled successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
... Success!

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Change the root password? [Y/n] Y
New password: Ketik password
Re-enter new password: Ulangi ketik password
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
... Success!

By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y
... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y
... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y
- Dropping test database...
... Success!
- Removing privileges on test database...
... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y
... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!

Langkah 3 – Install PHP

Install versi PHP, sebagai info Ubuntu 20.04 sudah PHP7.4

apt install php-phpdbg php-fpm php-curl php-gd php-imap php-interbase php-intl php-ldap php-readline php-pspell php-tidy php-xmlrpc php-json php-sybase php-mysql php-opcache php-bz2 php-mbstring php-xml php-enchant php-gmp php-soap php-zip php-bcmath php-pdo -y

Start dan aktifkan saat boot

systemctl start php-fpm
systemctl enable php-fpm

Atur konfigurasi PHP, seperti maksimal upload dan memory yang digunakan oleh PHP

nano /etc/php/7.4/fpm/php.ini

Cari baris-baris berikut dan sesuaikan

date.timezone = "Asia/Jakarta"
post_max_size = 32M
upload_max_filesize = 64M
memory_limit = 512M

Restart php-fpm

systemctl restart php7.4-fpm

Langkah 4 – Membuat virtual host Joomla

Membuat file konfigurasi virtual host di /etc/nginx/sites-available/.

nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/joomla.idnetter.com.conf

Isi dengan kode di bawah ini, silahkan ganti domain idnetter.com.

server {
	listen	*:80;
	server_name	idnetter.com www.idnetter.com;
	root	/var/www/html/joomla;
	index	index.php index.html index.htm;

	location / {
		try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;

		location ~ [^/]\.php(/|$) {
			fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
			if (!-f $document_root$fastcgi_script_name) {
				return  404;
			}

			fastcgi_pass	unix:/var/run/php/php7.4-fpm.sock;
			fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
			fastcgi_hide_header X-Powered-By;
			fastcgi_index   index.php;
			include		 /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
		}

	}
	
   location = /favicon.ico {
	log_not_found off;
	access_log off;
   }

    location = /robots.txt {
	allow all;
	log_not_found off;
	access_log off;
    }
		
    location ~ ^/(\.user.ini|\.htaccess|\.git|\.svn|\.project|LICENSE|README.md|\.htpasswd) {
        deny	all;
		return 404;
    }
    
    location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf|webp|ico|svg|eot|otf|woff|woff2|ttf|ogg)$
    {
        expires      30d;
        error_log off;
        access_log /dev/null;
    }
    
    location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
    {
        expires      12h;
        error_log off;
        access_log /dev/null; 
    }
}

Selanjutnya, buat symbolic link ke sites-enabled

ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/joomla.idnetter.com.conf /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/joomla.idnetter.com.conf

Restart Nginx

systemctl restart nginx

Langkah 5 – Install Letsencrypt

Perintah untuk Install Let’s Ecnrypt sepaket dengan certbot

apt install letsencrypt

Generate dhparam

openssl dhparam -dsaparam -out /etc/nginx/dhparam.pem 4096

Install SSL Let’s Encrypt untuk domain idnetter.com

certbot certonly --rsa-key-size 4096 --webroot --agree-tos --no-eff-email --email [email protected] -w /var/www/html/joomla -d idnetter.com -d www.idnetter.com

Edit virtual host Nginx agar bisa diakses HTTPS

nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/joomla.idnetter.com.conf

Ganti atau sesuaikan seperti kode berikut

server {
	listen 80;
	server_name idnetter.com www.idnetter.com;
	return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
}
server {
	listen	443 ssl http2;
	server_name	idnetter.com www.idnetter.com;
	root	/var/www/html/joomla;
	index	index.php index.html index.htm;

	ssl_protocols TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
	ssl_ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384;
	ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
	ssl_dhparam /etc/nginx/dhparam.pem;
	ssl_ecdh_curve secp384r1;
	ssl_session_timeout 1d;
	ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:10m;
	ssl_session_tickets off;
	ssl_stapling on;
	ssl_stapling_verify on;

	server_tokens off;
	resolver 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4 valid=300s;
	resolver_timeout 5s;

	add_header X-Frame-Options SAMEORIGIN;
	add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";
	add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;
	add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=63072000" always;
	location / {
		try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;

		location ~ [^/]\.php(/|$) {
			fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
			if (!-f $document_root$fastcgi_script_name) {
				return  404;
			}

			fastcgi_pass	unix:/var/run/php/php7.4-fpm.sock;
			fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
			fastcgi_hide_header X-Powered-By;
			fastcgi_index   index.php;
			include		 /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
		}

	}
	
   location = /favicon.ico {
	log_not_found off;
	access_log off;
   }

    location = /robots.txt {
	allow all;
	log_not_found off;
	access_log off;
    }
		
    location ~ ^/(\.user.ini|\.htaccess|\.git|\.svn|\.project|LICENSE|README.md|\.htpasswd) {
        deny	all;
		return 404;
    }
    
    location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf|webp|ico|svg|eot|otf|woff|woff2|ttf|ogg)$
    {
        expires      30d;
        error_log off;
        access_log /dev/null;
    }
    
    location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
    {
        expires      12h;
        error_log off;
        access_log /dev/null; 
    }
}

Restart Nginx

systemctl restart nginx

Langkah 6 – Membuat database Joomla

masuk ke root MySQL dan buat database

mysql -uroot -p

Masukkan pasword root MySQL, selanjutnya ini perintah untuk membuat nama dan user Database

CREATE DATABASE idnetter_joomla;
CREATE USER [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY 'katasandi123';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES on idnetter_joomla.* TO [email protected];
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
exit;

Langkah 7 – Download Joomla

Masuk ke /var/www/html, dan download Joomla terbaru

Cek link download Joomla terbaru disini

cd /var/www/html/joomla
wget -O joomla.zip https://downloads.joomla.org/cms/joomla3/3-9-19/Joomla_3-9-19-Stable-Full_Package.zip?format=zip

Ekstrak file Joomla

unzip joomla.zip

Setelah selesai, ganti permission direktori /var/www agar  Joomla bisa read/write

chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www

Tinggal eksekusi Joomla melaui web browser.

Langkah 8 – Install Joomla via Browser

Install Joomla melalui web browser, silahkan akses IP server atau domain yang telah dikonfigurasikan. Cek gambar di bawah ini:

Langkah 9 – Hapus direktori instalasi Joomla

Sebagai langkah perlindungan, hapus direktori installation

Klik tombol Remove “installation” folder

Atau bisa melalui command line

rm -rf /var/www/html/joomla/installation

Langkah 10 – SEO Settings (URL Rewrite) Joomla

Masuk ke Administrator Joomla: System > Global Configuration > SEO Settings

Aktifkan:

  • Use URL Rewriting
  • Add Suffix to URL

Selesai teman-teman, selamat mencoba dan semoga bermanfaat.

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